Two Bar Magnet Magnetic Field Lines Simulation

Quiz


Q1) The force between two unlike magnetic poles

A. increases linearly with the separation distance between them
B. increases as the square of the separation distance between them
C. decreases as the separation distance between them
D. decreases as the square of the separation distance between them

Answer) D.


Q2)  An iron rod becomes magnetic when.

a. positive ions accumulate at _me end and negative ions at the other end.
b. its atoms are aligned having plus charges on one side and negative charges on the other.
c. the net spins of its electrons are in the same direction.
d. its electrons stop moving and point in the same direction.
e. none of these.

 Answer) C.

Two Bar Magnet Magnetic Field Lines Simulation(virtual experiment)


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Magnetic Fields Around Permanent Magnets
When you experimented with two magnets, you noticed that the forces between magnets, both attraction and repulsion, occur not only when the magnets touch each other, but also when they are held apart. In the same way that long-range electric and gravitational forces can be described by electric and gravitational fields, magnetic forces can be described by the existence of fields around magnets. These magnetic fields are vector quantities that exist in a region in space where a magnetic force occurs.

 Figure 1 The magnetic field of a bar magnet shows up clearly in three dimensions when the magnet is suspended in glycerol with iron filings (a). It is, however, easier to set up a magnet on a sheet of paper covered with iron filings to see the pattern in two dimensions (b).

The presence of a magnetic field around a magnet can be shown using iron filings. Each long, thin, iron filing becomes a small magnet by induction.
Just like a tiny compass needle, the iron filing rotates until it is parallel to the magnetic field. Figure 1a shows filings in a glycerol solution surrounding a bar magnet. The three-dimensional shape of the field is visible. In Figure 1b, the filings make up a two-dimensional plot of the field, which can help you visualize magnetic field lines. Filings also can show how the field can be distorted by an object. 


Magnetic field lines 
Note that magnetic field lines, like electric field lines, are imaginary. They are used to help us visualize a field, and they also provide a measure of the strength of the magnetic field. The number of magnetic field lines passing through a surface is called the magnetic flux. The flux per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field. As you can see in Figure 1, the magnetic flux is most concentrated at the poles; thus, this is where the magnetic field strength is the greatest. The direction of a magnetic field line is defined as the direction in which the north pole of a compass points when it is placed in the magnetic field. Outside the magnet, the field lines emerge from the magnet at its north pole and enter the magnet at its south pole, as illustrated in Figure 2. What happens inside the magnet? 

 Figure 2 Magnetic field lines can be visualized as closed loops leaving the north pole of a magnet and entering the south pole of the same magnet.


There are no isolated poles on which field lines can start or stop, so magnetic field lines always travel inside the magnet from the south pole to the north pole to form closed loops.

Figure 3 The magnetic field lines indicated by iron filings on paper clearly show that like poles repel (a) and unlike poles attract (b). The iron filings do not form continuous lines between like poles. Between a north and a south pole, however, the iron filings show that field lines run directly between the two magnets.

What kinds of magnetic fields are produced by pairs of bar magnets? You can visualize these fields by placing two magnets on a sheet of paper, and then sprinkling the paper with iron filings. Figure 3a shows the field lines between two like poles. In contrast, two unlike poles (north and south) placed close together produce the pattern shown in Figure 3b. The filings show that the field lines between two unlike poles run directly from one magnet to the other. 

Forces on objects in magnetic fields 
Magnetic fields exert forces on other magnets. The field produced by the north pole of one magnet pushes the north pole of a second magnet away in the direction of the field line. The force exerted by the same field on the south pole of the second magnet is attractive in a direction opposite the field lines. The second magnet attempts to line up with the field, just like a compass needle.
When a sample made of iron, cobalt, or nickel is placed in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet, the field lines become concentrated within the sample. Lines leaving the north pole of the magnet enter one end of the sample, pass through it, and leave the other end. Thus, the end of the sample closest to the magnet’s north pole becomes the sample’s south pole, and the sample is attracted to the magnet.

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